Main Article Content
Air pressure lows and highs with periods of some days and seasonal variations of mean air pressure can be regarded as loading functions on the Earth's surface. They result in quasi-periodic surface deformations. The influence of such displacements on the results and the accuracy of VLBI experiments (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) is investigated by simulation calculations for the transatlantic Effelsberg-Haystack baseline. Different models for the time dependence of air-pressure-induced station displacements are considered. It is shown that today's standard VLBI data analysis, including model parameters for clock- and atmospheric-refraction effects, is not able to correct the measurements for atmospheric loading effects. It leads to erroneous baseline vectors. Hence, for every geodetic VLBI experiment, the amount by which (1) the local air pressure at the station and (2) the mean air pressure in a surrounding area of 2,000 km radius has changed during the experiment should be tested. These two values give an estimate of the resulting vertical displacments by the use of a regression formula. The corresponding delay-time corrections have to be applied to the VLBI data. Most of the radiotelescopes participating in geodetic VLBI experiments are situated in regions with small seasonal variations of the station position. However, an increasing VLBI accuracy and an expanded and denser VLBI network will also require the consideration of seasonal displacements.
Authors who publish with this journal as of Vol. 63 agree to the following terms:
a. Authors share the copyright with this journal in equal parts (50% to the journal, 50% to the lead author), and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work after publication simultaneously licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors may enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal, and a reference to this copyright notice.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) during the submission process, as this can lead to productive exchanges and earlier and greater citation of published work and better sales of the copyright.
Authors retain copyright and grant the Journal of Geophysics right of first publication, with the work three years after publication simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 4.0 License that allows others to share the work (with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal), except for commercial purposes and for creating derivatives.
Authors can enter into separate, additional, but non-commercial contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository, but not publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as that can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
This journal is one of a handful of scholarly journals that publish original scientific works under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 - the only Creative Commons license affording the authors' intellectual property absolute worldwide protection.
Journal of Geophysics is published under the scholar-publishers model, meaning authors do not surrender their copyright to us. Instead, and unlike corporate publishers like Elsevier or Springer Nature that resell copyright to third-parties for up to $80,000 (per paper, per transaction!), the Journal of Geophysics authors share copyright equally with this journal.
Therefore, all the proceeds from reselling copyright to third parties get shared to equal parts (50% to the journal, 50% to the lead author). Under the Berne Convention, this protection is an inheritable right that lasts for as long as the rightsholder lives + 50 years.
By submitting to this journal, the lead author, on behalf of all co-authors, grants permission to this journal to represent all co-authors in negotiating copyright sales and collecting proceeds. The lead author should negotiate with his/her co-authors the modalities of distributing the lead author's portion of the proceeds. Usually, this is per pre-agreed percentage of each co-author's contribution to creating the copyrighted work. (more...)
Campbell, J., Cloppenburg, H., Lohmar, F.J. (1984) Estimating the ionospheric refraction effect on interferometric G PSmeasurements. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Space Techniques for Geodynamics 2, 196-206, Soppon
Farrell, W.E. (1972) Deformation of the earth by surface loads. Rev. Geophys. Space Physics 10, 761-797
Faust, H. (1968) Der Aufbau der Erdatmosphare. Braunschweig: Verlag Vieweg und Sohn
Longman, J.M. (1962) A Green's function for determining the deformation of the Earth under surface mass loads. J. Geophys. Res. 67, 845-850
Lundquist, G.L. (1984) Radio interferometry as a probe of tectonic plate motion. Chalmers University of Technology, Techmcal Report No. 250
NASA (1984) NASA Technical Memorandum 87359. NASA Geodynamics Program: Fifth Annual Report. Houston
Rabbel, W., Zschau, J. (1985) Static deformation and gravity changes at the earth's surface due to atmospheric loading. J. Geophys. 56, 81-99
Scherneck, H.-G. (1983) Crustal loading affecting VLBI sites. Umversity of Uppsala, Institute of Geophysics, Department of Geodesy, Report No. 20, Uppsala
Schuh, H. (1985) Auswertemodelle der astronomischjgeodatisch genutzten VLBI. Mitteilungen der Geodatischen Institute der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelm-Univ. Bonn, No. 70, 17-28
Stolz, A., Larden, D.R. (1979) Seasonal displacement and deformation of the earth by the atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 84 6185-6194
Trubytsin, A.P., Makalkin, A.V.S. (1976) Deformation of th_e earth's crust due to atmospherical cyclones. Izv. Acad. Set USSR, Phys. Solid Earth 12, 343-344
Varga, P. (1981) Displacements of the Earth surface caused by external forces. 4th Intern. Symp. Geodesy and Physics of the Earth, G.D.R. Kari-Marx-Stadt, 1980, proc. part III, Veroffentlichungen des Zentralinstituts ftir Physik der Erde Nr. 63, Teillll, 793-807
Zschau, J. (1979) Auflastgezeiten. Habilitation-thesis, University of Kiel