Journal of Geophysics https://journal.geophysicsjournal.com/JofG <div style="height: 100px;"> <div class="noselect" style="font-size: 0.9em;">The <strong>Journal of Geophysics</strong> (<em>J. Geophys.</em>) is the world's oldest and premier geophysical journal. It publishes research of great importance to geosciences, primarily in any areas of classical (theoretical) geophysics — including planetary physics, geodynamics, tectonophysics, seismology, physical and mathematical geodesy, atmosphere physics, and <a href="/JofG/about#nav-menu">more...</a></div> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div style="text-align: right; margin-top: -30px;"> <p class="responsiveimg3"><img src="/public/site/images/JoGeoph/openbook.png" alt="Journal of Geophysics"><a href="/JofG/about#nav-menu"><img class="flip" src="/public/site/images/JoGeoph/openbook-flip.png" alt="Journal of Geophysics"></a></p> </div> </div> en-US <div class="noselect"> <p style="text-align: center;"><img class="responsiveimg" style="width: 100%; height: auto;" src="/public/site/images/JoGeoph/Copyright.png" alt="Journal of Geophysics"></p> <p>Authors who publish with this journal as of Vol. 63 agree to the following terms:</p> <p>a. Authors share the copyright with this journal in equal parts (50% to the journal, 50% to the lead author), and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work after publication simultaneously licensed under <a style="color: #00bfff;" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY-NC-ND 4.0</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>b. Authors may enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal, and a reference to this copyright notice.</p> <p>c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) during the submission process, as this can lead to productive exchanges&nbsp; and earlier and greater citation of published work and better sales of the copyright.</p> <h3>Author Self-archiving</h3> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the <strong>Journal of Geophysics</strong> right of first publication, with the work three years after publication simultaneously licensed under the <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 4.0 License</a> that allows others to share the work (with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal), except for commercial purposes and for creating derivatives.</p> <p>Authors can enter into separate, additional, but non-commercial contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository, but not publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as that can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> <h3>Additional Notes</h3> <p>This journal is one of a handful of scholarly journals that publish original scientific works under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 - the only Creative Commons license affording the authors' intellectual property absolute worldwide protection.</p> <p><strong>Journal of Geophysics</strong> is published under the scholar-publishers model, meaning authors do not surrender their copyright to us. Instead, and unlike corporate publishers like&nbsp;<em>Elsevier</em>&nbsp;or&nbsp;<em>Springer Nature</em>&nbsp;that resell copyright to third-parties for up to&nbsp;<strong>$80,000</strong>&nbsp;(per paper, per transaction!), the Journal of Geophysics authors share copyright equally with this journal.</p> <p>Therefore, all the proceeds from reselling copyright to third parties get shared to equal parts (50% to the journal, 50% to the lead author). Under the Berne Convention, this protection is an inheritable right that lasts for as long as the rightsholder lives + 50 years.</p> <p>By submitting to this journal, the lead author, on behalf of all co-authors, grants permission to this journal to represent all co-authors in negotiating copyright sales and collecting proceeds. The lead author should negotiate with his/her co-authors the modalities of distributing the lead author's portion of the proceeds. Usually, this is per pre-agreed percentage of each co-author's contribution to creating the copyrighted work. (<a href="https://journal.geophysicsjournal.com/JofG/about#nav-menu">more</a>...)</p> </div> editor@geophysicsjournal.com (Dr. Mensur Omerbashich) office@geophysicsjournal.com (Editorial Office Direct:) Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Scaling relations for energy magnitudes https://journal.geophysicsjournal.com/JofG/article/view/304 <p>Homogenizing earthquake catalogs is an effort critical to fundamentally improving seismic studies for next-generation seismology. The preparation of a homogenous earthquake catalog for a seismic region requires scaling relations to convert different magnitude types, like the m<sub>b</sub> and M<sub>s</sub>, to a homogenous magnitude, such as the seismic moment scale, M<sub>wg</sub>, and energy magnitude scale, M<sub>e</sub>. Several recent studies addressed the preparation of homogenized earthquake catalogs, usually involving the estimation of proxies of moment magnitude M<sub>w</sub> from local, M<sub>L</sub>, and teleseismic (M<sub>s</sub> and m<sub>b</sub>) magnitude estimates. Instead of the standard least squares (SLR), most of such studies used the general orthogonal regression (GOR), while some used the Chi-square regression method. Here we critically discuss GOR and Chi-square regression theory and find that both are the same for the linear case — as expected since both stem from the same mathematical concept. Thus to foster an improved understanding of seismicity and seismic hazard, we used GOR methodology and derived global scaling relations individually between body, surface, energy, and seismic moment magnitude scales. For that purpose, we have compiled 13,576 and 13,282 events for M<sub>s</sub> from ISC and NEIC, respectively, m<sub>b</sub> magnitude data for 1,266 events from ISC, 614 events from NEIC, and M<sub>wg</sub> magnitude values for 6,690 events from NEIC and GCMT. We have also derived M<sub>S,ISC</sub>-to-M<sub>e</sub> and M<sub>S,NEIC</sub>-to-M<sub>e</sub> conversion relations in magnitude ranges of 4.7≤M<sub>S,ISC</sub>≤8.0 and 4.5≤M<sub>S,NEIC</sub>≤8.0, respectively. Likewise, we obtained m<sub>b,ISC</sub>-to-M<sub>e</sub> and m<sub>b,NEIC</sub>-to-M<sub>e</sub> conversion relations for ranges of 5.2≤m<sub>b,ISC</sub>≤6.2 and 5.3≤m<sub>b,NEIC</sub>≤6.5. &nbsp;Since the number of data points was insufficient to derive the relations, we considered m<sub>b,NEIC</sub> up to M6.5. &nbsp;Finally, we derived an M<sub>Wg</sub>-to-M<sub>e</sub> conversion relation for the 5.2≤M<sub>w</sub>≤8.2 range of magnitudes with focal depths &lt;70 km. &nbsp;Our scaling relations can be used for homogenizing earthquake catalogs and conducting seismicity and seismic hazard assessment studies with enhanced realism.</p> <p><a href="https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=127838183624783700" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img class="scholar" title="Google Scholar" src="/public/site/images/JoGeoph/gs.png" alt="Google Scholar"></a> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>ARK</strong>: <a title="ARK Identifier" href="https://n2t.net/ark:/88439/x063005" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://n2t.net/ark:/88439/x063005</a></p> <p>Permalink: https://geophysicsjournal.com/article/304</p> <p><a target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img class="scholar" title="Copyright Clearance Center" src="/public/site/images/JoGeoph/ccc.png" alt="Copyright Clearance Center"></a> <a title="Copyright Clearance Center" href="https://www.copyright.com/openurl.action?issn=2643-2986&amp;WT.mc.id=Journal%20of%20Geophysics" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Reprints &amp; Permissions</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> R. Das, C. Meneses Copyright (c) https://journal.geophysicsjournal.com/JofG/article/view/304 Fri, 26 Mar 2021 20:33:31 +0000 Detection and mapping of Earth body resonances with continuous GPS https://journal.geophysicsjournal.com/JofG/article/view/313 <p>I recently reported temporal proof that M<sub>w</sub>5.6+ strong earthquakes occur due to (as the lithosphere rides on) vast waves of the tidally driven and gravitationally aided 1–72h long-periodic Earth body resonance (EBR). Here I report a methodologically independent spatial proof of EBR, conclusively showing that tremors are not the only earthquake type caused by mechanical resonance: observations of actual EBR waves in solid matter using continuous Global Positioning System (cGPS) and of their triggering M<sub>w</sub>5.6+ earthquakes. Superharmonic resonance periods from the EBR’s 55’–15 days (0.303 mHz–0.7716 μHz) band are thus recoverable in spectra of International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2014) positional components solved kinematically from 30-s cGPS samplings. The signal is so pure, strong, and stable that even daylong components are constantly periodic at or above 99%-significance, with very high statistical fidelity, ϕ&gt;&gt;12, and ϕ&lt;&lt;12 characterizing overtones or undertones. cGPS stations have diurnal EBR fingerprints: unique sets of ~13–18 EBR frequencies, most clearly formed during ~M<sub>w</sub>6+ quiescence, enabling depiction of EBR orientation for real-time EBR mapping. Furthermore, weeklong component time series reveal complete EBR and expected undertones as the signature of EBR’s companion sympathetic resonances, with very high ϕ&gt;&gt;12. Also, I demonstrate EBR mapping using the Mexico City–Los Angeles–San Francisco cGPS profile alongside a tectonic plate boundary, successfully depicting the preparation phase of the 2020 Puerto Rico M<sub>w</sub>6.4–M<sub>w</sub>6.6 earthquakes sequence. I finish by showing that the EBR triggered the 2019 Ridgecrest M<sub>w</sub>6.4–M<sub>w</sub>7.1 earthquakes sequence. EBR maps can now be produced for seismic prediction/forecasting and unobscuring (decoupling EBR frequencies) from geophysical observables like stress and strain. EBR engulfs the Earth’s crust, forming the <em>resonance wind</em> whose role and incessantness demote mantle convection from the working hypothesis of geophysics and whose applications include geophysical prospecting and detection at all scales and times. A previously unaccounted-for fundamental force of geophysics, the impulsive EBR spans the vastest energy bands, invalidating any previous claims of seismic detections of gravitational wave signals from deep space, such as by the LIGO experiment.</p> <p><a href="https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=998699777037622170" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img class="scholar" title="Google Scholar" src="/public/site/images/JoGeoph/gs.png" alt="Google Scholar"></a> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>ARK</strong>: <a title="ARK Identifier" href="https://n2t.net/ark:/88439/x073994" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://n2t.net/ark:/88439/x073994</a></p> <p>Permalink: https://geophysicsjournal.com/article/313</p> <p><a target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img class="scholar" title="Copyright Clearance Center" src="/public/site/images/JoGeoph/ccc.png" alt="Copyright Clearance Center"></a> <a title="Copyright Clearance Center" href="https://www.copyright.com/openurl.action?issn=2643-2986&amp;WT.mc.id=Journal%20of%20Geophysics" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Reprints &amp; Permissions</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> M. Omerbashich Copyright (c) https://journal.geophysicsjournal.com/JofG/article/view/313 Sat, 14 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000