Volcanoes, fountains, earthquakes, and continental motion - What causes them?

Main Article Content

W. Kundt
A. Jessner

Abstract

As a common mechanism for the various volcanic phenomena on Earth we point out a severe disobeyance of Poincare's (von Zeipel's) theorem: hot, gas-rich, high-pressure "fingers" (diatremes) can grow out of the boundary layer above a molten domain and thrust their way up from the asthenosphere toward the surface. The isobars of a planet or moon can look like the surface of a bed of nails. Linear arrays of high-pressure diatremes can drive continental motion. Moreover, we hold the tidal torque responsible for magnetic dynamo action.


Google Scholar         ARK:/88439/y049522


 

Article Details

How to Cite
Kundt, W., and A. Jessner. 1986. “Volcanoes, Fountains, Earthquakes, and Continental Motion - What Causes Them?”. Journal of Geophysics 60 (1), 33-40. https://journal.geophysicsjournal.com/JofG/article/view/7.
Bookmark and Share

References

Anderson, D.L. (1984) The Earth as a planet: paradigms and paradoxes. Science 223, 347-355

Baumann, L. (1984) Die Zyklizitiit in der Plattentektonik und in den zugehorigen metallogenetischen Prozessen. Z. geol. Wiss. Berlin 12, 141-173

Bloxham, J., Gubbins, D. (1985) The secular variation of Earth's magnetic field. Nature 317, 777-781

Bonatti, E., Crane, K. (1984) Oceanic fracture zones. Sci. Amer., May, 36-47

Burbank, D.W., Reynolds, R.G.H. (1984) Sequential late Cenozoic structural disruption of the northern Himalayan foredeep. Nature 311, 114-118

Burchfiel, B.C. (1983) The continental crust. Sci. Amer., September, 86-97

Christensen, U. (1984) Instability of a hot boundary layer and initiation of thermochemical plumes. Annales Geophysicae 2, 311-320

Closs, H., Giese, P., Jacobshagen, V. (1984) Alfred Wegeners Kontinentalverschiebung aus heutiger Sicht. In: Ozeane und Kontinente, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Heidelberg, pp. 40-53

Dawson, J.B. (1980) Kimberlites and their Xenoliths. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer

Dixon, T.H., Parke, M.E. (1983) Bathymetry estimates in the southern oceans from Seasat altimetry. Nature 304, 406-411

Edmond, J.M., von Damm, K. (1984) Heise Quellen am Grund der Ozeane. In: Ozeane und Kontinente, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Heidelberg, pp. 216--229

Foster, D.R., King, G.A., Glaser, P.H., Wright, H. E. jr. (1983) Origin of string patterns in boreal peatlands. Nature 306, 256-258

Francheteau, J. (1983) The oceanic crust. Sci. Amer., September, 68-83

Freund, F. (1980) Atomic carbon in magnesium oxide. Mat. Res. Bull. 15, 1767-1772

Giardini, A.A., Melton, Ch.E. (1983) A scientific explanation for the origin and location of petroleum accumulations. J. Petroleum Geology 6, 117-138

Gold, T. (1978) Mars, the icy planet. COSP AR proceedings, Innsbruck, May

Gold, T. (1979) Terrestrial sources of carbon and earthquake outgassing. J. Petroleum Geology 1, 3-19

Gold, T. (1980) Soter, St.: The deep-earth-gas hypothesis. Sci. Amer., June, 130-137

Gold, T. (1982) Soter, St.: Abiogenic methane and the origin of petroleum. Energy Exploration & Exploitation 1, 89-103

Goldreich, P., Peale, S.J. (1968) The dynamics of planetary rotations. Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 6, 287-320

Huppert, H.E., Sparks, R.S.J. (1984) Double-diffusive convection due to crystallization in magmas. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 12, 11-37

Jacoby, W.R. (1980) Plate sliding and sinking in mantle convection and the driving mechanism. In: Mechanisms of continental drift and plate tectonics, P.A. Davies, S.K. Runcorn (eds.), pp. 159-172. London: Academic Press

Jeffreys, H. (1970) The Earth, its origin, history, and constitution, 5th edn. London: Cambridge University Press

Jordan, T.H. (1984) Die Tiefenstruktur der Kontinente. In: Ozeane und Kontinente, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Heidelberg, pp. 94-105

LaMarche, V.C. jr., Hirschboeck, K.K. (1984) Frost rings in trees as records of major volcanic eruptions. Nature 307, 121-126

Lambeck, K. (1980) The Earth's variable rotation: Geophysical causes and consequences. London: Cambridge University Press

Landau, L.D., Lifshitz, E.M. (1966) Theoretische Physik VI, Hydrodynamik, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin

Lang, K.R. (1974) Astrophysical Formulae. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer

Lliboutry, L. (1972) The driving mechanism, its source of energy, and its evolution studied with a three-layer model. J. Geophys. Res. 77, 3759-3770

Loper, D.E. (1985) A simple model of whole-mantle convection. J. Geophys. Res. 90 B2, 1809-1836

Macdonald, K.C., Luyendyk, B.P. (1984) Tauchexpedition zur ostpazifischen Schwelle. In: Ozeane und Kontinente, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Heidelberg, pp. 200-215

Mathez, E.A. (1984) Influence of degassing on oxidation states of basaltic magmas. Nature 310, 371-375

McKenzie, D.P. (1983) The Earth's Mantle. Sci. Amer. September, 51-62

Moorbath, St. (1984) Die iiltesten Gesteine. In: Ozeane und Kontinente, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Heidelberg, pp. 80-93

Morrison, L. (1985) The day time stands still. New Scientist 27 June, 20-21

O'Nions, R.K., Ox burgh, E.R. (1983) Heat and helium in the Earth. Nature 306, 429-431

Parker, E.N. (1983) Magnetic fields in the Cosmos. Sci. Amer., August, 36-46

Press, W.H., Lightman, A.P. (1983) Dependence of macrophysical phenomena on the values of the fundamental constants. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A310, 323-336

Runcorn, S.K. (1980) Some comments on the mechanism of continental drift. In: Mechanisms of continental drift and plate tectonics, P.A. Davies, S.K. Runcorn eds.: pp. 193-198. London: Academic Press

Sclater, J.G., Tapscott, Ch. (1984) Die Geschichte des Atlantik. In: Ozeane und Kontinente, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Heidelberg, pp. 118-130

Spera, F.J., Yuen, D.A., Kemp, D.V. (1984) Mass transfer rates along vertical walls in magma chambers and marginal upwelling. Nature 310, 764-767

Stothers, R.B. (1984) The Great Tam bora eruption in 1815 and its aftermath. Science 224, 1191-1197

Toksoz, M.N. (1984) Die Subduktion der Lithosphaere. In: Ozeane und Kontinente, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Heidelberg, pp. 106-116

Tryggvason, K., Husebye, E.S., Stefansson, R. (1983) Seismic image of the hypothesized icelandic hot spot. Tectonophysics 100, 97-118

Vetter, U.R., Strehlau, J.F., Meissner, R.O. (1980) Viscosity estimates of the lithosphere and asthenosphere. In: Mechanisms of continental drift and plate tectonics, P.A. Davies, S.K. Runcorn eds.: pp. 295-303. London: Academic Press

Weisskopf, V.F. (1975) Of atoms, mountains, and stars: a study in qualitative physics. Science 187, 605-612, and 188, 783

Williams, H., McBirney, A.R. (1979) Volcanology. San Francisco: Freeman, Cooper & Co.

Wilson, J.T. (1984) Kontinentaldrift. In: Ozeane und Kontinente, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Heidelberg, pp. 10-25

Wilson, L., Head, J.W. III. (1983) A comparison of volcanic eruption processes on Earth, Moon, Mars, Io and Venus. Nature 302, 663-669

Woidt, W.-D. (1978) Finite element calculations applied to salt dome analysis. Tectonophysics 50, 369-386

Worsley, T.R., Nance, D., Moody, J.B. (1984) Global tectonics and eustasy for the past 2 billion years. Marine Geology 58, 373-400