Main Article Content
We investigate the effect of low-velocity waveguides on ground motion. The computation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of Rayleigh waves up to the frequency 10.0 Hz allows an analysis of the seismic response which is source independent. The main conclusions of this study are: (1) Extending the model to depths greater than that of the waveguides allows the exact computation of leaking modes. (2) A source in a layered structure generates P waves of higher frequency than S waves even if the structure is purely elastic. (3) At high frequencies (10.0 Hz) the modal components of P waves separate from those of SV waves. (4) Strong surface waves are generated by shallow sources in sedimentary basins, also at a source distance of a few tens of kilometres. These waves do not appear in structures without sediments. (5) The polarization of strong ground motion at the surface of low-velocity layers is mainly horizontal. (6) For oceanic models, the contribution of the sedimentary layers is separable from that of the water layer only at high frequencies.
Authors who publish with this journal as of Vol. 63 agree to the following terms:
a. Authors share the copyright with this journal in equal parts (50% to the journal, 50% to the lead author), and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work after publication simultaneously licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors may enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal, and a reference to this copyright notice.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) during the submission process, as this can lead to productive exchanges and earlier and greater citation of published work and better sales of the copyright.
Authors retain copyright and grant the Journal of Geophysics right of first publication, with the work three years after publication simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 4.0 License that allows others to share the work (with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal), except for commercial purposes and for creating derivatives.
Authors can enter into separate, additional, but non-commercial contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository, but not publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as that can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
This journal is one of a handful of scholarly journals that publish original scientific works under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 - the only Creative Commons license affording the authors' intellectual property absolute worldwide protection.
Journal of Geophysics is published under the scholar-publishers model, meaning authors do not surrender their copyright to us. Instead, and unlike corporate publishers like Elsevier or Springer Nature that resell copyright to third-parties for up to $80,000 (per paper, per transaction!), the Journal of Geophysics authors share copyright equally with this journal.
Therefore, all the proceeds from reselling copyright to third parties get shared to equal parts (50% to the journal, 50% to the lead author). Under the Berne Convention, this protection is an inheritable right that lasts for as long as the rightsholder lives + 50 years.
By submitting to this journal, the lead author, on behalf of all co-authors, grants permission to this journal to represent all co-authors in negotiating copyright sales and collecting proceeds. The lead author should negotiate with his/her co-authors the modalities of distributing the lead author's portion of the proceeds. Usually, this is per pre-agreed percentage of each co-author's contribution to creating the copyrighted work. (more...)
Biswas, N.N., Knopoff, L. (1974) The structure of the upper mantle under the United States from the dispersion of Rayleigh waves. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 36:515-539
Brady, A.G., Perez, V., Mork, P.N. (1980) The Imperial Valley earthquake, October 15, 1979, digitization and processing of accelerograph records. U.S. Geol. Surv., Open-File Rept. 80-703, 309 pp.
Deresiewicz, H., Mindlin, R.D. (1985) Axially symmetric flexural vibrations of a circular disk. J. Appl. Mech. 22:86-88
Ebeniro, J., Wilson, C.R., Dorman, J. (1983) Propagation of dispersed compressional and Rayleigh waves on the Texas coastal plain. Geophysics 48:27-35
Fuis, G.S., Mooney, W.D., Healey, J.H., McMechan, G.A., Lutter, W.S. (1982) Crustal structure of the Imperial Valley region. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 1254:25-49
Harkrider, D.G. (1970) Surface waves in multilayered elastic media. Part II. Higher mode spectra and spectral ratios from point sources in plane layered elastic models. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 60:1937-1987
Hartzell, S.H., Brune, J.N., Prince, J. (1978) The October 6, 1974 Acapulco earthquake: an example of the importance of short period surface waves in strong ground motion. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 68:1663-1677
Johnson, L.R., Silva, W. (1981) The effects of unconsolidated sediments upon the ground motion during local earthquakes. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 71:127-142
Kovach, R.L., Anderson, D.L. (1964) Higher mode surface waves and their bearing on the structure of the Earth's mantle. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 54:161-182
McMechan, G.A., Yedlin, M.J. (1981) Analysis of dispersive waves by wave field transformation. Geophysics 46:869-874
Mooney, H.M., Bolt, B.A. (1966) Dispersive characteristics of the first three Rayleigh modes for a single surface layer. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 56:43-67
Panza, G.F. (1985) Synthetic seismograms: the Rayleigh waves modal summation. J. Geophys.
Panza, G.F., Schwab, F., Knopoff, L. (1972) Channel and crustal Rayleigh waves. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 30:273-280
Phinney, R.A. (1961) Leaking modes in the crustal wave-guide. 1. The oceanic Pl wave. J. Geophys. Res. 66:1445-1469
Schwab, F., Knopoff, L. (1971) Surface waves on multilayered anelastic media. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 61:893-912
Tatham, R.H. (1975) Surface-wave dispersion applied to the detection of sedimentary basins. Geophysics 40:40-55
Tolstoy, I. (1956) Resonant frequencies and high modes in layered wave guides. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 28:1182-1192
Tolstoy, I., Usdin, E. (1957) Wave propagation in elastic plates: low and high mode dispersion. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 29:37-42