Main Article Content
The theory describing the relaxation of an incompressible, layered Maxwell half-space is developed. The approach is based on the analytic solution of the associated elastic model and the subsequent application of the correspondence principle. The viscoelastic theory follows normal-mode theory, which allows the independent and exact determination of the relaxation-time and amplitude spectra for each mode of relaxation. The solution is tested by calculating the response of several models in the wavenumber and spatial domains. The examples are selected with regard to postglacial adjustment in Fennoscandia and analyse effects caused by (a) varying lithospheric thickness, (b) adding an asthenosphere, (c) increasing lower-mantle viscosity, (d) permitting relaxation of the lower lithosphere or (e) introducing density contrasts at 400-km and 670-km depths.
Authors who publish with this journal as of Vol. 63 agree to the following terms:
a. Authors share the copyright with this journal in equal parts (50% to the journal, 50% to the lead author), and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work after publication simultaneously licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors may enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal, and a reference to this copyright notice.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) during the submission process, as this can lead to productive exchanges and earlier and greater citation of published work and better sales of the copyright.
Authors retain copyright and grant the Journal of Geophysics right of first publication, with the work three years after publication simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 4.0 License that allows others to share the work (with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal), except for commercial purposes and for creating derivatives.
Authors can enter into separate, additional, but non-commercial contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository, but not publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as that can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
This journal is one of a handful of scholarly journals that publish original scientific works under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 - the only Creative Commons license affording the authors' intellectual property absolute worldwide protection.
Journal of Geophysics is published under the scholar-publishers model, meaning authors do not surrender their copyright to us. Instead, and unlike corporate publishers like Elsevier or Springer Nature that resell copyright to third-parties for up to $80,000 (per paper, per transaction!), the Journal of Geophysics authors share copyright equally with this journal.
Therefore, all the proceeds from reselling copyright to third parties get shared to equal parts (50% to the journal, 50% to the lead author). Under the Berne Convention, this protection is an inheritable right that lasts for as long as the rightsholder lives + 50 years.
By submitting to this journal, the lead author, on behalf of all co-authors, grants permission to this journal to represent all co-authors in negotiating copyright sales and collecting proceeds. The lead author should negotiate with his/her co-authors the modalities of distributing the lead author's portion of the proceeds. Usually, this is per pre-agreed percentage of each co-author's contribution to creating the copyrighted work. (more...)
Beaumont, C. (1978) The evolution of sedimentary basins on a viscoelastic lithosphere: theory and examples. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 55:471-497
Cathi es, L.M. (1975) The viscosity of the Earth's mantle. Princeton University Press
Courtney, R.C. (1982) On the rheology of the oceanic and continental lithospheres. M.Sc. thesis, Dalhousie University
Dziewonski, A.M., Anderson, D.L. (1981) Preliminary reference Earth model. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 25:297-356
Farrell, W.E. (1972) Deformation of the Earth by· surface loads. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 10:761-797
Imbrie, J., Imbrie, K.P. (1979) Ice ages: solving the mystery. Enslow, Hillside
Kuo, J.T. (1969) Static response of a multilayered medium under inclined surface loads. J. Geophys. Res. 74:3195-3207
Lambeck, K., Nakiboglu, S.M. (1980) Seamount loading and stress in the ocean lithosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 85:6403-6418
Lanczano, P. (1982) Deformations of an elastic Earth. Academic Press, New York
McConnell, R.K. jr. (1965) Isostatic adjustment in a layered Earth. J. Geophys. Res. 70:5171-5188
McConnell, R.K. jr. (1968) Viscosity of the mantle from relaxation time spectra of isostatic adjustment. J. Geophys. Res. 73:7089-7105
Nakiboglu, S.M., Lambeck, K. (1982) A study of the Earth's response to surface loading with application to Lake Bonneville. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 70:577-620
Parker, R.L. (1972) The rapid calculation of potential anomalies. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 31:447-455
Parsons, B.E. (1972) Changes in the Earth's shape. Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University
Peltier, W.R. (1974) The impulse response of a Maxwell Earth. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 12:649-669
Peltier, W.R. (1976) Glacial-isostatic adjustment - II. The inverse problem. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 46:669-705
Peltier, W.R. (1982) Dynamics of the ice age Earth Adv. Geophys. 24:1-146
Peltier, W.R. (1985) The LAGEOS constraint on deep mantle viscosity: results from a new normal mode method for the inversion of viscoelastic relaxation spectra. J. Geophys. Res. (In press)
Peltier, W.R., Andrews, J.T. (1976) Glacial-isostatic adjustment - I. The forward problem. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 46:605-646
Sclater, J.G., Jaupart, C., Galson, D. (1980) The heat flow through oceanic and continental crust and the heat loss of the Earth. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 18:269-311
Tullis, J.A. (1979) High temperature deformation of rocks and minerals. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 17:1137-1154
Walcott, R.I. (1980) Rheological models and observational data of glacio-isostatic rebound. In: Morner, N.-A. (Ed.) Earth rheology, isostasy, and eustasy. pp. 3-10. Wiley, New York
Ward, S.N. (1984) A note on lithospheric bending calculations. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 78:241-253
Weertman, J., Weertman, J.R. (1975) High temperature creep of rock and mantle viscosity. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 3:293-315
Wolf, D. (1984) The relaxation of spherical and flat Maxwell Earth models and effects due to the presence of the lithosphere. J. Geophys. 56:24-33
Wolf, D. (1985a) Thick-plate flexure re-examined. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 80:265-273
Wolf, D. (1985b) On Boussinesq's problem for Maxwell continua subject to an external gravity field. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 80:275-279
Wolf, D. (1985c) The normal modes of a uniform, compressible Maxwell half-space. J. Geophys. 56:100-105
Wolf, D. (1985d) An improved estimate of lithospheric thickness based on a reinterpretation of tilt data from Pleistocene Lake Algonquin. Can. J. Earth Sci. 22:768-773
Wu, P., Peltier, W.R. (1982) Viscous gravitational relaxation. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 70:435-485
Wu, P., Peltier, W.R. (1983) Glacial isostatic adjustment and the free-air gravity anomaly as a constraint on deep mantle viscosity. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 74:377-449