Main Article Content
Anisotropy and intensity variations of high-energy particles and magnetic variations detected by IMP-J at 37 Re in the central part of the magnetotail within 2 Re of the neutral sheet were studied during a few consecutive substorms on March 3, 1976, and related to a large body of ground observations. A close correlation is usually found between bursts observed in Pi pulsations on the ground (having a duration of about 1 min and usually being repeated in 1–3 min) and high-energy particle bursts observed in the far tail. The magnetic field response is examined relative to the onsets of high-energy particle bursts. A three-dimensional current system RIPD (Reconnection Induced Propagating Disturbance) is constructed which can, in principle, produce the magnetic field variations observed in the boundary part of the plasma sheet (PS). Previously reported properties of high-energy particle bursts (inverse energy dispersion, preferential acceleration of alpha particles, dawn-dusk asymmetry in the acceleration of electrons and protons and transient PS expansions) are found to be typical of these impulsive processes. Together with earlier results, these observations show that the expansion process (identified here as a transient reconnection or explosive tearing mode) clearly operates in an impulsive fashion. The superposition of impulse-induced propagating disturbances necessarily results in complex, variable patterns of magnetic field and thermal plasma behaviour, such as are frequently found in the PS during substorms.
Authors who publish with this journal as of Vol. 63 agree to the following terms:
a. Authors share the copyright with this journal in equal parts (50% to the journal, 50% to the lead author), and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work after publication simultaneously licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors may enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal, and a reference to this copyright notice.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) during the submission process, as this can lead to productive exchanges and earlier and greater citation of published work and better sales of the copyright.
Authors retain copyright and grant the Journal of Geophysics right of first publication, with the work three years after publication simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 4.0 License that allows others to share the work (with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal), except for commercial purposes and for creating derivatives.
Authors can enter into separate, additional, but non-commercial contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository, but not publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as that can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
This journal is one of a handful of scholarly journals that publish original scientific works under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 - the only Creative Commons license affording the authors' intellectual property absolute worldwide protection.
Journal of Geophysics is published under the scholar-publishers model, meaning authors do not surrender their copyright to us. Instead, and unlike corporate publishers like Elsevier or Springer Nature that resell copyright to third-parties for up to $80,000 (per paper, per transaction!), the Journal of Geophysics authors share copyright equally with this journal.
Therefore, all the proceeds from reselling copyright to third parties get shared to equal parts (50% to the journal, 50% to the lead author). Under the Berne Convention, this protection is an inheritable right that lasts for as long as the rightsholder lives + 50 years.
By submitting to this journal, the lead author, on behalf of all co-authors, grants permission to this journal to represent all co-authors in negotiating copyright sales and collecting proceeds. The lead author should negotiate with his/her co-authors the modalities of distributing the lead author's portion of the proceeds. Usually, this is per pre-agreed percentage of each co-author's contribution to creating the copyrighted work. (more...)
Akasofu, S.-I. (1977) Physics of magnetospheric substorms. D. Reidel, Dordrecht Holland
Andrews, M.K., Keppler, E., Daly, P.W. (1981) Plasma sheet motions inferred from medium-energy ion measurements. J. Geophys. Res. 86:7543-7556
Baker, D.N., Fritz, T.A., Wilken, B., Higbie, P.R., Kaye, S.M., Kivelson, M.G., Moore, T.E., Studemann, W., Masley, A.J., Smith, P.H., Vampola, A.L. (1982) Observation and modeling of energetic
particles at geosynchronuos orbit on July 29, 1977. J. Geophys. Res. 87:5917-5932
Belian, R.D., Baker, D.N., Hones, E.W., Highbie, P.R., Bame, S.J., Asbridge, J.R. (1981) Timing of energetic proton enhancements relative to magnetospheric substorm activity and its implication for substorm theories. J. Geophys. Res. 86:1415-1421
Belian, R.D., Baker, D.N., Hones, E.W., Higbie, P.R. (1984) High-energy proton drift echoes: Multiple peak structure. J. Geophys. Res. 89:9101-9106
Basinger, T., Alanko, K., Kangas, J., Opgenoorth, H., Baumjohann, W. (1981) Correlations between PiB type magnetic micropulsation, auroras, and equivalent current structures during two isolated substorms. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 43:933-945
Buck, R.M., West, H.I., D'Arcy, R.G. (1973) Satellite studies of magnetospheric substorms on August 15, 1968. 7. Ogo 5 energetic proton observations - spatial boundaries. J. Geophys. Res. 78:3103-3118
Caan, M.N., Fairfield, D.H., Hones, E.W. (1979) Magnetic fields in flowing magnetotail plasmas and their significance for magnetic reconnection. J. Geophys. Res. 84:1971-1976
Carbary, J.F., Krimigis, S.M. (1979) Energetic particle activity at 5-min and 10-s time resolution in the magneto tail and its relation to auroral activity. J. Geophys. Res. 84:7123-7137
Cattell, C.A., Kim, M., Lin, R.P., Mozer, F.S. (1982) Observations of large electric fields near the plasmasheet boundary by ISEE-1. Geophys. Res. Lett. 9:539-542
Coroniti, F.V., Frank, L.A., Williams, D.J., Lepping, R.P., Scarf, F.L., Krimigis, S.M., Gloeckler, G. (1980) Variability of plasma sheet dynamics. J. Geophys. Res. 85:2957-2977
Forbes, T.G., Priest, E.R. (1983) On reconnection and plasmoids in the geomagnetic tail. J. Geophys. Res. 88:863-870
Galeev, A.A. (1979) Reconnection in the magnetotail. Space Sci. Rev. 23:411-435
Hill, T.W., Reiff, P.H. (1980) Plasma-sheet dynamics and magnetospheric substorms. Planet. Space Sci. 28:363-374
Hones, E.W. (1979) Plasma flow in the magnetotail and its implications for substorm theories. In: Akasofu, S.-I. (Ed.) Dynamics of the magnetosphere, pp. 545-562. D. Reidel, Dordrecht
Hones, E.W., Schindler, K. (1979) Magnetotail plasma flow during substorms: a survey with IMP 6 and IMP 8 satellites. J. Geophys. Res. 84:7155-7169
Hones, E.W., Asbridge, J.R., Bame, S.J., Singer, S. (1973) Substorm variations of the magneto tail plasma sheet from X ~ - 6 Re to x ~ -60 Re. J. Geophys. Res. 78:109-132
Hones, E.W., Birn, J., Bame, S.J., Paschmann, G., Russell, C.T. (1982) On the three-dimensional magnetic structure of the plasmoid created in the magnetotail at substorm onset. Geophys. Res. Lett. 9:203-206
Krimigis, S.M., Sarris, E.T. (1979) Energetic particle bursts in the Earth's magneto tail. In: Akasofu, S.-I. (Ed.) Dynamics of the magnetosphere, pp. 599-630. D. Reidel, Dordrecht
Kirsch, E., Krimigis, S.M., Sarris, E.T., Lepping, R.P. (1981) Detailed study on acceleration and propagation of energetic protons and electrons in the magnetotail during substorm activity. J. Geophys. Res. 86:6727-6738
Lui, A.T.Y., Krimigis, S.M. (1983) Energetic ion beam in the Earth's magnetotail lobe. Geophys. Res. Lett. 10:13-16
Lui, A.T.Y., Meng, C.-I. (1979) Relevance of southward magnetic fields in the neutral sheet to anisotropic distribution of energetic electrons and substorm activity. J. Geophys. Res. 84:5817-5827
Lui, A.T.Y., Akasofu, S.-I., Hones, E.W., Bame, S.J., Mcilwain, C.E. (1976) Observation of the plasma sheet during a contracted oval substorm in a prolonged quiet period. J. Geophys. Res. 81:1415-1419
Lui, A.T.Y., Meng, C.-I., Akasofu, S.-I. (1977) Search for the magnetic neutral line in the near-Earth plasma sheet. 2. Systematic study of IMP 6 magnetic field observations. J. Geophys. Res. 82:1547-1565
Mishin, V.M., Nemtsova, E.I., Saifudinova, T.I., Urbanovich, V.D., Loginov, G.A., Sergeev, V.A., Danilov, A.A., Sobolev, A.V., Solov'ev, S.I., Zaitsev, A.N., Lyubimova, N.P., Shevnina, N.F., Baumjohann, W. (1982) Results of observations during substorms on March 3, 1976. 2. Data of geomagnetic observations. Siberian Institute of Terrestial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation Preprint Sib-1-82, Irkutsk
Mobius, E., Ipavich, F.M., Scholer, M., Gloeckler, G., Hovestadt, D., Klecker, B. (1980) Observations of a nonthermal ion layer at the plasma sheet boundary during substorm recovery. J. Geophys. Res. 85:5143-5148
Murayama, T. (1970) Correlated occurrence of energetic electron bursts in the magnetotail and geomagnetic impulsive micropulsation. Rept. Ionos. Space Res. 24:135-147
Nishida, A., Fujii, K. (1976) Thinning of the near-Earth (10-15 R.) plasma sheet preceding the substorm expansion phase. Planet. Space Sci. 24:849-853
Nishida, A., Hayakawa, H., Hones, E.W. (1981) Observed signatures of reconnection in the magnetotail. J. Geophys. Res. 86:1422-1436
Parks, G.K., Lin, C.S., Anderson, K.A., Lin, R.P., Reme, H. (1979) ISEE 1 and 2 particle observations of outer plasma sheet boundary. J. Geophys. Res. 84:6471-6476
Pedersen, A., Grard, R., Knott, K., Jones, D., Gonfalone, A., Fahleson, U. (1978) Measurements of quasi-static electric fields between 3 and 7 Earth radii on Geos-1. Space Sci. Rev. 22:333-346
Pellinen, R., Heikkila, W.J. (1984) Inductive electric fields in the magnetotail and their relation to auroral and substorm phenomena. Space Sci. Rev. 37:1-61
Pudovkin, M.I., Sergeev, V.A. (Eds.) (1984) Results of substorm studies on March 3, 1976. In: Magnetospheric Res. 5 (In Russian)
Pytte, T., McPherron, R.L., Kivelson, M.G., West, H.I., Hones, E.W. (1976) Multiple-satellite studies of magnetospheric substorms: radial dynamics of the plasma sheet. J. Geophys. Res. 81:5921-5933
Pytte, T., McPherron, R.L., Kivelson, M.G., West, H.I., Hones, E.W. (1978) Multiple-satellite studies of magnetospheric substorms: Plasma sheet recovery and the poleward leap of auroral zone activity. J. Geophys. Res. 83:5256-5268
Roelof, E.C., Keath, E.P., Bostrom, C.O., Williams, D.J. (1976) Fluxes of 50-keV protons and 30-keV electrons at 35 R •. 1. Velocity anisotropies and plasma flow in the magnetotail. J. Geophys. Res. 81:2304-2314
Sarris, E.T., Axford, W.I. (1979) Energetic protons near the plasma sheet boundary. Nature 277:460-462
Sarris, E.T., Krimigis, S.M., Armstrong, T.P. (1976a) Observations of magnetospheric bursts of high-energy protons and electrons at 35 R. with Imp 7. J. Geophys. Res. 81:2341-2355
Sarris, E.T., Krimigis, S.M., Iijima, T., Bostrom, C.O., Armstrong, T.P. (1976b) Location of the source of magnetospheric energetic particle bursts by multispacecraft observations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 3:437-440
Sato, T., Walker, R.J., Ashour-Abdalla, M. (1984) Driven magnetic reconnection in three dimensions: Energy conversion and fieldaligned current generation. J. Geophys. Res. 89:9761-9769
Semenov, V.S., Heyn, M., Kubyshkin, I.V. (1983) Magnetic field line reconnection in nonstationary case. Astron J. 69:1138-1147 (In Russian)
Sergeev, V .A. (1977) On the microstructure of the magnetospheric substorm. Geomagn. Researches 21:5-15 (In Russian)
Sergeev, V.A. (1981) High-time resolution correlation between the magnetic field behaviour at 37 R. distance in the magnetotail plasma sheet and ground phenomena during substorm expansion phase. J. Geophys. 49:176-185
Sergeev, V.A. (1983) Changes in the far plasma sheet at substorm expansion onset. Geomagn. Aeron. 23:822-828 (In Russian)
Sergeev, V.A., Yahnin, A.G. (1979) The features of auroral bulge expansion. Planet. Space Sci. 27:1429-1440
Sergeev, V.A., Yahnin, A.G., Raspopov, O.M. (1978) On the spatialtemporal structure of the expansion phase of microsubstorm. In: Raspopov, O.M., Lazutin, L.L. (Eds.) Dynamical processes of the auroral magnetosphere, pp. 42-54, Apatity (In Russian)
Sergeev, V.A., Yahnin, A.G., Gorely, K.I., Danielsen, C., Pellinen, R.I., Samsonov, V.P., Urbanovieh, V.D., Latov, Y.O., Ranta, H., Stauning, P., Armstrong, T.P., Hones, E.W., Krimigis, S.M., Lepping, R.R., Ness, N.F. (1981) Results of observations during substorms on March 3, 1976. 1. Auroral precipitation data and measurements in the magnetotail. Polar Geophysical Institute preprint PGI-81-1, Apatity
Sergeev, V.A., Pellinen, R.J., Basinger, T., Baumjohann, W., Stauning, P., Lui, A.T.Y. (1986) Spatial and temporal characteristics of impulsive structure of magnetospheric substorm. J. Geophys. 60:186-198
Spjeldvik, W.N., Fritz, T.A. (1981) Energetic ion and electron observations of the geomagnetic plasma sheet boundary layer: Threedimensional results from ISEE 1. J. Geophys. Res. 86:2480-2486
Williams, D.J. (1981) Energetic ion beams at the edge of the plasma sheet: ISEE 1 observations plus a simple explanatory model. J. Geophys. Res. 66:5507-5518
Wolcott, J.H., Pongratz, M.B., Hones, E.W., Peterson, R.W. (1976) Correlated observations of two auroral substorms from an aircraft and from a Vela satellite. J. Geophys. Res. 81:2709-2718
Yahnin, A.G., Sergeev, V.A., Pellinen, R.J., Baumjohann, W., Kaila, K.U., Ranta, H., Kangas, J., Raspopov, O.M. (1976) Substorm time sequence and microstructure on 11 November
J. Geophys. 53, 182-197, 1983 Yahnin, A.G., Sergeev, V.A., Ievenko, LB., Solovjev, S.I., Rakhmatulin, R. (1984) Characteristics of phenomena accompanied by the local flares of discrete auroras. In: Magnetospheric Res. 5:93-110 (In Russian)
Zeleny, L.M., Lipatov, A.S., Lominadze, D.G., Taktakishvili, A.L. (1984) The dynamics of the energetic proton bursts in the course of the magnetic field topology reconstruction in the Earth's magnetotail. Planet. Space Sci. 32:313-324