Main Article Content
At least a dozen well-defined activations were recorded with high spatial resolution during the first 25 min of a substorm commencing at 1959 UT on 3 March 1976. The activations were determined by Pi1 and 2-type magnetic pulsations, magnetic variations and cosmic noise absorption. The activations exhibited differences in intensity, spatial extent and the accompanied auroral behaviour. In all cases but one an impulsive counterclockwise differential equivalent current vortex was observed superimposed on the continuously growing westward electrojet. The high-energy particle precipitation reached its maximum in these vortex regions. In cases where the activations observed on the ground occurred close to the footpoint of the IMP-J satellite, it registered simultaneously (within 2 min) burstlike enhancements of the high-energy particle fluxes. The satellite was at these times 37 RE away from the Earth in the plasma sheet boundary layer. Large, practically isotropic high-energy electron fluxes detected at the satellite during the substorm expansion suggested the existence of a large-scale magnetic loop structure in the far magnetotail. The results give evidence of a time-varying dissipation process operating in an impulsive manner in separate regions of the plasma sheet (within a few RE). According to the magnetic variations at mid-latitude, the intensity of the cross-tail current disruption (or the substorm current wedge) does not respond to these activations in the same impulsive manner, but seems to integrate their effects.
Authors who publish with this journal as of Vol. 63 agree to the following terms:
a. Authors share the copyright with this journal in equal parts (50% to the journal, 50% to the lead author), and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work after publication simultaneously licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors may enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal, and a reference to this copyright notice.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) during the submission process, as this can lead to productive exchanges and earlier and greater citation of published work and better sales of the copyright.
Authors retain copyright and grant the Journal of Geophysics right of first publication, with the work three years after publication simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 4.0 License that allows others to share the work (with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal), except for commercial purposes and for creating derivatives.
Authors can enter into separate, additional, but non-commercial contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository, but not publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as that can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
This journal is one of a handful of scholarly journals that publish original scientific works under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 - the only Creative Commons license affording the authors' intellectual property absolute worldwide protection.
Journal of Geophysics is published under the scholar-publishers model, meaning authors do not surrender their copyright to us. Instead, and unlike corporate publishers like Elsevier or Springer Nature that resell copyright to third-parties for up to $80,000 (per paper, per transaction!), the Journal of Geophysics authors share copyright equally with this journal.
Therefore, all the proceeds from reselling copyright to third parties get shared to equal parts (50% to the journal, 50% to the lead author). Under the Berne Convention, this protection is an inheritable right that lasts for as long as the rightsholder lives + 50 years.
By submitting to this journal, the lead author, on behalf of all co-authors, grants permission to this journal to represent all co-authors in negotiating copyright sales and collecting proceeds. The lead author should negotiate with his/her co-authors the modalities of distributing the lead author's portion of the proceeds. Usually, this is per pre-agreed percentage of each co-author's contribution to creating the copyrighted work. (more...)
Akasofu, S.-I. (1968) Polar and magnetospheric substorms. D. Reidel, Dordrecht
Akasofu, S.-I. (1977) Physics of magnetospheric substorms. D. Reidel, Dordrecht
Baker, D.N., Akasofu, S.-I., Baumjohann, W., Bieber, J.M., Fairfield, D.H., Hones, E.W., McPherron, R.L., Moore, T.E. (1984) Substorms in the magnetosphere. Chapter 8, Solar-terrestrial physics - present and future. Papadopoulos, K., Butler, D. (Eds.), NASA, Washington, D.C.
Baumjohann, W., Mishin, V.M., Saifudinova, T.I., Shpynev, G.B., Bazarzhapov, A.D. (1981) Substorms, microsubstorms and disruption of currents in the magnetospheric plasma sheet. Issled. Geomagn. Aeron. Fys. Sol. 53:182-191 (In Russian)
Bostrom, R. (1974) Ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling. In: McCormack, M. (Ed.) Magnetospheric physics, pp. 45-59. D. Reidel, Dordrecht
Basinger, T., Alanko, K., Kangas, J., Opgenoorth, H.I., Baumjohann, W. (1981) Correlations between PiB type magnetic micropulsations, auroras and equivalent current structures during two isolated substorrns. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 43:933-945
Coroniti, F.V., Frank, L.A., Williams, D.J., Lepping, R.P., Scarf, F.L., Krimigis, S.M., Gloeckler, G. (1980) Variability of plasma sheet dynamics. J. Geophys. Res. 85:2957-2977
Fairfield, D.H., Lepping, R.P., Hones, E.W., Bame, S.I., Asbridge, J.R. (1981) Simultaneous measurements of magnetotail dynamics by IMP spacecrafts. J. Geophys. Res. 86:1396-1414
Galeev, A.A. (1982) Magnetospheric tail dynamics. In: Nishida, A. (Ed.) Magnetospheric plasma physics, p. 143. Center for Academic Publ. Japan
Hill, T.W., Reiff, P.H. (1980) Plasma sheet dynamics and magnetospheric substorms. Planet. Space Sci. 28:363-374
Hones, E.W. (1979) Plasma flow in the magnetotail and its implications for substorm theories. In: Akasofu, S.-I. (Ed.) Dynamics of the magnetosphere, pp. 545-562. D. Reidel, Dordrecht
Hones, E.W., Karas, R.H., Lanzerotti, L.I., Akasofu, S.-I. (1971) Magnetospheric substorrns on September 14, 1968. J. Geophys. Res. 76:6765-6780
Hones, E.W., Baker, D.N., Bame, S.J., Feldman, W.C., Gosling, J.T., McComas, D.J., Zwickl, R.D., Slavin, J.A., Smith, E.J., Tsurutani, B.T. (1984) Structure of the magnetotail at 220 RE and its response to geomagnetic activity. Geophys. Res. Lett. 11:5-7
Kaila, K.U. (1981) Three-dimensional mapping of the aurora from digitized all-sky pictures. Finn. Met. Inst., Technical Report No. 25:38
Kamide, Y., Baumjohann, W. (1985) Estimation of electric fields and currents from IMS magnetometer data for the CDA W-6 intervals: Implications for substorm dynamics. J. Geophys. Res. 90:1305-1317
Krimigis, S.M., Sarris, F.T. (1979) Energetic particle bursts in the Earth's magnetotail. In: Akasofu, S.-I. (Ed.) Dynamics of the magnetosphere, pp. 599-630. D. Reidel, Dordrecht
Kiippers, F., Untiedt, J., Baumjohann, W., Lange, K., Jones, A.G. (1979) A two-dimensional magnetometer array for ground-based observations of auroral zone currents during IMS. J. Geophys. 46:429-450
Maltsev, Yu.P., Leontyev, S.V., Lyatsky, W.B. (1974) Pi2 pulsations as a result of evolution of an Alfven impulse originated in the ionosphere during a brightening of aurora. Planet. Space Sci.
McPherron, R.L., Russel, C.T., Aubry, M.P. (1973) Satellite studies of magnetospheric substorms on August 15, 1968 (9). J. Geophys. Res. 78:3131-3147
Melnikov, A.O., Khrushinsky, A.A., Zhulin, I.A., Kornilov, I.A., Lazutin, L.L., Raspopov, O.M., Riedler, V.K., Sakharov, Ya.A., Tagirov, V.R., Treilhou, T.P. (1976) X-ray burst structure of break-up and Pi2 geomagnetic pulsations. In: Kola Branch Acad. Sci. USSR (Ed.) Dynamical processes and structure of auroral magnetosphere (SAM BO experiment) pp. 28-42, Apatity (In Russian)
Mishin, V.M., Nemtsova, E.I., Saifudinova, T.I., Urbanovich, V.D., Loginov, G.A., Sergeev, V.A., Danilov, A.A., Sobolev, A.V., Solovjev, S.I., Zaitsev, A.N., Lyubimova, N.P., Shevnina, N.F., Baumjohann, W. (1982) Results of observations during substorms on March 3, 1976. 2. Data of geomagnetic observations. Preprint SibIZMIR Nl-82, Irkutsk
Opgenoorth, H.I., Pellinen, R.J., Maurer, H., Kiippers, F., Heikkila, W.J., Kaila, K.U., Tanskanen, P. (1980) Ground-based observations of an onset of localized field-aligned currents during auroral break-up around magnetic midnight. J. Geophys. 48:101-115
Pellinen, R., Heikkila, W.J. (1984) Inductive electric fields in the magnetotail and their relation to auroral and substorm phenomena. Space Sci. Rev. 37:1-61
Pellinen, R.J., Baumjohann, W., Heikkila, W.J., Sergeev, V.A., Yahnin, A.G., Marklund, G., Melnikov, A.O. (1982) Event study on pre-substorm phases and their relation to the energy coupling between solar wind and magnetosphere. Planet. Space Sci. 30:371-388
Pytte, T., McPherron, R.L., Kivelson, M.G., West, H.I., Hones, E.W. (1976a) Multiple-satellite studies of magnetospheric substorm. Radial dynamics of the plasma sheet. J. Geophys. Res. 81:5921-5933
Pytte, T., Trefall, H., Kremser, G., Tanskanen, P., Riedler, W. (1976b) On the morphology of energetic ( > 30 keV) electron precipitation at the onset of negative magnetic bays. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 38:757-773
Pytte, T., McPherron, R.L., Kokubun, S. (1976c) The ground signatures of the expansion phase during multiple-onset substorrns. Planet. Space Sci. 24:1115-1132
Pytte, T., McPherron, R.L., Kivelson, M.G., West, H.I., Hones, E.W. (1978) Multiple-satellite studies of magnetospheric substorms: Plasma sheet recovery and the poleward leap of auroral activity. J. Geophys. Res. 83:5256-5268
Ranta, H., Ranta, A., Collis, P.N., Hargreaves, J.K. (1981) Development of the auroral absorption substorm: Studies of pre-onset phase and sharp onset using an extensive riometer network. Planet. Space Sci. 29:1287-1313
Rostoker, G., Akasofu, S.-I., Foster, J., Greenwald, R.A., Kamide, Y., Kawasaki, K., Lui, A.T.Y., McPherron, R.L., Russell, C.T. (1980) Magnetospheric Substorms-Definition and Signatures. J. Geophys. Res. 85:1663-1668
Sato, T., Hayashi, T., Walker, R.J., Ashour-Abdalla, M. (1983) Neutral sheet current interruption and field-aligned current generation by three-dimensional driven reconnection. Geophys. Res. Lett. 10:221-224
Semenov, V.S., Sergeev, V.A. (1981) A simple semi-empirical model for magnetospheric substorm. Planet. Space Sci. 29:271-281
Sergeev, V.A. (1974) On the longitudinal localization of substorm active region and its changes during the substorm. Planet. Space Sci. 22:1341-1343
Sergeev, V.A. (1977) On the state of magnetosphere during prolonged periods of southward oriented IMF. Phys. Solariterr., Potsdam N 5:39-50
Sergeev, V .A. (1981) High-time resolution correlation between the magnetic field behaviour at 37 RE distance in the magnetotail plasma sheet and ground phenomena during substorm expansion phase. J. Geophys. 49:176-185
Sergeev, V.A., Yahnin, A.G. (1979) The features of auroral bulge expansion. Planet. Space Sci. 27:1429-1444
Sergeev, V.A., Yahnin, A.G., Raspopov, O.M. (1978) On the spatialtemporal structure of the expansive phase of microsubstorm. In: Raspopov, O.M., Lazutin, L.L. (Eds.) Dynamical processes and structure of auroral magnetosphere, pp. 42-54. Apatity (In Russian)
Sergeev, V.A., Yahnin, A.G., Gorely, K.I., Danielson, C., Pellinen, R.J., Samsonov, V.P., Urbanovich, V.D., Latov, Yu.O., Ranta, H., Stauning, P., Armstrong, T.P., Hones, E.W., Krimigis, S.M., Lepping, R.P., Ness, N.F. (1981) Results of observations during substorms on March 3, 1976. 1. Auroral precipitation data and measurements in the magnetotail. Polar Geophysical Institute preprint PGI-81-1, Apatity
Sergeev, V.A., Basinger, T., Lui, A.T.Y. (1986) Impulsive processes in the magnetotail during substorm expansion. J. Geophys., this issue.
Troshichev, O.A.,. Kuznetsov, B.M., Pudovkin, M.I. (1974) The current systems of the magnetic substorm growth and expansion phases. Planet. Space Sci. 22:1403-1412
Tsyganenko, N.A. (1979) The subroutines and tables for calculation of geomagnetic field. WDC-B report, Moscow
Untiedt, J., Pellinen, R., Kiippers, F., Opgenoorth, H.J., Pelster, W.D., Baumjohann, W., Ranta, H., Kangas, J., Chechowsky, P., Heikkila, W.J. (1978) Observations of the initial development of an auroral and magnetic substorrn at magnetic midnight. J. Geophys 45:41-65
Vasyliev, E.P., Malkov, M.V., Sergeev, V.A. (1986) Three-dimensional effects of substorm current wedge. Geomagn. Aeronomy (in Russian) 26:114-119
Vorobjev, V.G., Rezhenov, B.V. (1973) Progressive westward displacements of the region of the auroral substorm localization in conjunction with impulsive variations of the magnetic field. Inst. Ass. Geomag. Aeron. Bull. 34:441-449
Wiens, R.G., Rostoker, G. (1975) Characteristics of the development of the westward electrojet during the expansive phase of the magnetospheric substorm. J. Geophys. Res. 30:2109-2128
Yahnin, A.G., Sergeev, V.A., Pellinen, R.J., Baumjohann, W., Kaila, K., Ranta, H., Kangas, J., Raspopov, O.M. (1983) Substorm time sequence and microstructure on November 11, 1976. J. Geophys. 53:182-197
Yahnin, A.G., Sergeev, V.A., Ievenko, J.B., Solovjev, S.I., Rakhmatulin, R. (1984) Characteristics of phenomena, accompanied by the local flares of discrete auroras. In: Magnetospheric Res. 5:93-110 (In Russian)
Zeleny, L.M., Lipatov, A.S., Lominadze, D.G., Taktakishvili, A.L. (1984) The dynamics of the energetic proton bursts in the course of the magnetic field topology reconstruction in the Earth's magnetotail. Planet. Space Sci. 32:313-324
Most read articles by the same author(s)
- V.A. Sergeev, T. Bosinger, A.T.Y. Lui, Impulsive processes in the magnetotail during substorm expansion , Journal of Geophysics: Vol 60 No 1 (1986): Journal of Geophysics