A two-dimensional magnetometer array for ground-based observations of auroral zone electric currents during the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS)

Main Article Content

F. Kuppers
J. Untiedt
W. Baumjohann
K. Lange
A.G. Jones


A two-dimensional magnetometer array was progressively installed in Scandinavia, from 1974 onwards, for operation during the IMS period (1977-1979). The 36 instruments, which are buried in the ground, are of the Gough-Reitzel type, i.e., classical magnetometers, with wire-suspended magnets and optical recording. The time-variation period range observable is from about 50 s to several days. In northern Scandinavia, the spacing between the stations is about 100-150 km in both the north-south and east-west directions. For presentation and analysis of the data a special Cartesian coordinate system has been introduced (the 'Kiruna system'). It is derived by mapping the local Earth's surface onto a tangential plane, with its origin close to Kiruna (geographic coordinates 67.8 N, 20.5 E). First results from some stations show that internal contributions to the recorded horizontal geomagnetic variations are small and possibly negligible at lower frequencies. However, at frequencies above about 2 mHz the variations of the vertical component display a strong amplification near the coast, and indicate the existence of conductivity anomalies at some inland locations. In order to demonstrate the observational capabilities of the array, equivalent overhead current configurations are presented which characterize a substorm recorded on October 7, 1976.

Google Scholar           ARK: https://n2t.net/ark:/88439/y001456

Permalink: https://geophysicsjournal.com/article/160


Article Details

How to Cite
Kuppers, F., Untiedt, J., Baumjohann, W., Lange, K., & Jones, A. (1979). A two-dimensional magnetometer array for ground-based observations of auroral zone electric currents during the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). Journal of Geophysics, 46(1), 429-450. Retrieved from https://journal.geophysicsjournal.com/JofG/article/view/160


Akasofu, S.-I. (1968) Polar and magnetospheric substorms. Reidel, Dordrecht

Akasofu, S.-I., Wilson, C.R., Snyder, L., Perreault, P.O. (1971) Results from a meridian chain of observatories in the Alaskan sector(I). Planet. Space Sci. 19:477-482

Bannister, J.R., Gough, D.I. (1977) Development of a polar magnetic substorm: A two-dimensional magnetometer array study. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 51:75-90

Bannister, J.R., Gough, D.I. (1978) A study of two polar magnetic substorms with a two-dimensional magnetometer array. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 53:1-26

Baumjohann, W., Greenwald, R.A., Kuppers, F. (1978) Joint magnetometer array and radar backscatter observations of auroral currents in northern Scandinavia. J. Geophys. 44:373-383

Baumjohann, W., Untiedt, J., Greenwald, R.A. (1979) Joint two-dimensional observations of ground magnetic and ionospheric electric fields associated with auroral zone currents. I. Three-dimensional
current flows associated with a substorm-intensified eastward electrojet. J. Geophys. Res., submitted

Birkeland, K. (1908) The Norwegian aurora polaris expedition 1902-1903, Vol. 1: On the cause of magnetic storms and the origin of terrestrial magnetism, Sect. 1. Christiania: Aschehoug

Birkeland, K. (1913) The Norwegian aurora polaris expedition 1902-1903, Vol. I: On the cause of magnetic storms and the origin of terrestrial magnetism, Sect. 2. Christiania: Aschehoug

Camfield, P.A., Gough, D.I. (1976) Comment on use of anomalous stations for IMS. EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 57:850

Chapman, S., Bartels, J. (1940) Geomagnetism, Vol. I. Geomagnetic and related phenomena. Oxford: Clarendon Press

Chen, A.J., Rostoker, G. (1974) Auroral-polar currents during periods of moderate magnetospheric activity. Planet. Space Sci. 22:1101-1115

Fukushima, N. (1953) Polar magnetic storms and geomagnetic bays. J. Fae. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 8:293-412

Gough, D. I. (1974) Effects of induction in the earth upon measurements of external time-varying magnetic fields. EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 55:595-599

Gough, D.I., Bannister, J.R. (1978) A polar magnetic substorm observed in the evening sector with a two-dimensional magnetometer array. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 55:435-450

Gough, D.I., Reitzel, J.S. (1967) A portable three component magnetic variometer. J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 19:203-215

Gustafsson, G. (1970) A revised corrected geomagnetic coordinate system. Ark. Geofys. 5:595-617

Harang, L. (1946) The mean field of disturbance of polar geomagnetic storms. Terr. Magn. Atmos. Electr. 51:353-380

Heppner, J.P. (1972) The Harang discontinuity in auroral belt ionospheric currents. Geophys. Publ. 29:105-120

Hughes, T.J., Rostoker, G. (1977) Current flow in the magnetosphere and ionosphere during periods of moderate activity. J. Geophys. Res. 82:2271-2282

Kamide, Y. (1978) On current continuity at the Harang discontinuity. Planet. Space Sci. 26:237-244

Kamide, Y., Akasofu, S.-I. (1976) The auroral electrojet and field-aligned current. Planet. Space Sci. 24:203-213

Kamide, Y., Akasofu, S.-I., Rostoker, G. (1976) Field-aligned currents and the auroral electrojet in the morning sector. J. Geophys. Res. 81:6141-6147

Kamide, Y., Rostoker, G. (1977) The spatial relationship of field-aligned currents and auroral electrojets to the distribution of nightside auroras. J. Geophys. Res. 82:5589-5608

Kawasaki, K., Rostoker, G. (1979) Perturbation magnetic fields and current systems associated with eastward drifting auroral structures. J. Geophys. Res. 84:1464-1480

Kertz, W. (1954) Madelle fur erdmagnetisch induzierte elektrische Strome im Untergrund. Nachr. Akad. Wiss. Goettingen, Math.-Phys. Kl. 2A:101-110

Kisabeth, J.L., Rostoker, G. (1971) Development of the polar electro jet during polar magnetic substorms. J. Geophys. Res. 76:6815-6828

Kisabeth, J.L., Rostoker, G. (1973) Current flow in auroral loops and surges inferred from ground-based magnetic observations. J. Geophys. Res. 78:5573-5584

Kisabeth, J.L., Rostoker, G. (1974) The expansive phase of magnetospheric substorms. I. Development of the auroral electrojets and auroral arc configuration during a substorm. J. Geophys. Res. 79:972-984

Kuppers, F., Post, H. (1979) A second generation Gough-Reitzel magnetometer. J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. (Aaccepted)

Lanzerotti, L.J., Sugiura, M. (1976) Reply. EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 57:850

Lilley, F.E.M. (1975) Magnetometer array studies: A review of the interpretation of observed fields. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 10:231-240

Loginov, G.A., Vasilev, E.P., Grafe, A. (1978) Some results of the investigation of magnetic variations of the auroral electrojets concluded from observations of the geomagnetic meridian project (GMP). Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 87:249-262

Maurer, H., Theile, B. (1978) Parameters of the auroral electrojet from magnetic variations along a meridian. J. Geophys. 44:415-426

Maynard, N.C. (1974) Electric field measurements across the Harang discontinuity. J. Geophys. Res. 79:4620-463l

Mersmann, U., Baumjohann, W., Kuppers, F., Lange, K. (1979) Analysis of an eastward electrojet by means of upward continuation of ground-based magnetometer data. J. Geophys. 45:281-298

Nielsen, E., Greenwald, R.A. (1979) Electron flow and visual aurora at the Harang discontinuity. J. Geophys. Res. 84:4189-4200

Rostoker, G. (1972) Polar magnetic substorms. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 10:157-211

Rostoker, G., Hron, M. (1975) The eastward electrojet in the dawn sector. Planet. Space Sci. 23:1377-1389

Rostoker, G., Kisabeth, J.L. (1973) Response of the polar electrojets in the evening sector to polar magnetic substorms. J. Geo phys. Res. 78:5559-5571

Schmucker, U. (1973) Regional induction studies: A review of methods and results. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 7:365-378

Siebert, M., Kertz, W. (1957) Zur Zerlegung eines lokalen erdmagnetischen Feldes in aul3eren und inneren Anteil. Nachr. Akad. Wiss. Goettingen, Math.-Phys. Kl. 2A:87-112

Untiedt, J., Pellinen, R., Kuppers, F., Opgenoorth, H.J., Pelster, W.D., Baumjohann, W., Ranta, H., Kangas, J., Czechowsky, P., Heikkila, W.J. (1978) Observations of the initial development of an auroral and magnetic substorm at magnetic midnight. J. Geophys. 45:41-65

Whalen, J.A. (1970) Auroral oval plotter and nomograph for determining corrected geomagnetic local time, latitude, and longitude for high latitudes in the northern hemisphere. Environmental Res. Papers, No. 327, Air Force Cambridge Res. Lab., Bedford, Mass.

Wiens, G.R., Rostoker, G. (1975) Characteristics of the development of the westward electrojet during the expansive phase of magnetospheric substorms. J. Geophys. Res. 80:2109-2128

Wilhjelm, J., Friis-Christensen, E. (1976) Magnetometer chain in Greenland. Geophys. Papers, R-48, Danish Meteorol. Inst., Copenhagen

Wilhjelm, J., Friis-Christensen, E., Potemra, T.A. (1978) The relationship between ionospheric and fieldaligned currents in the dayside cusp. J. Geophys. Res. 83:5586-5594

Yasuhara, F., Kamide, Y., Akasofu, S.-I. (1975) Field-aligned and ionospheric currents. Planet. Space Sci. 23:1355-1368