Geodetic measurements and horizontal crustal movements in the rift zone of NE-Iceland
Main Article Content
Based on the special geodetic network set up by Niemczyk and Emschermann in 1938 in order to determine horizontal movements of the Earth's crust in the fissure area of the neo-volcanic zone of NE-Iceland, a number of repeated measurements were carried out from 1965 to 1977. In this article, modern geodetic measuring techniques and the (constantly improving) positional accuracy achieved are described; this is followed by an evaluation showing significant crustal movements in the riftzone. In the period of 1965 to 1971, movements in the total area of approximately 110 km from east to west were restricted to compressions, whereas afterwards, and in particular since 1975, expansions of up to 2 m/km have occurred in the central rift area. At present, this expansion is largely compensated by compression in the peripheral areas of up to 0.05 m/km, so that between 1971 and 1977 a total east-west expansion of the neovolcanic zone of only about 0.4 m has resulted over a distance of about 90 km.
Authors who publish with this journal as of Vol. 63 agree to the following terms:
a. Authors share the copyright with this journal in equal parts (50% to the journal, 50% to the lead author), and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work after publication simultaneously licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors may enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal, and a reference to this copyright notice.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) during the submission process, as this can lead to productive exchanges and earlier and greater citation of published work and better sales of the copyright.
Authors retain copyright and grant the Journal of Geophysics right of first publication, with the work three years after publication simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 4.0 License that allows others to share the work (with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal), except for commercial purposes and for creating derivatives.
Authors can enter into separate, additional, but non-commercial contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository, but not publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as that can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
This journal is one of a handful of scholarly journals that publish original scientific works under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 - the only Creative Commons license affording the authors' intellectual property absolute worldwide protection.
Journal of Geophysics is published under the scholar-publishers model, meaning authors do not surrender their copyright to us. Instead, and unlike corporate publishers like Elsevier or Springer Nature that resell copyright to third-parties for up to $80,000 (per paper, per transaction!), the Journal of Geophysics authors share copyright equally with this journal.
Therefore, all the proceeds from reselling copyright to third parties get shared to equal parts (50% to the journal, 50% to the lead author). Under the Berne Convention, this protection is an inheritable right that lasts for as long as the rightsholder lives + 50 years.
By submitting to this journal, the lead author, on behalf of all co-authors, grants permission to this journal to represent all co-authors in negotiating copyright sales and collecting proceeds. The lead author should negotiate with his/her co-authors the modalities of distributing the lead author's portion of the proceeds. Usually, this is per pre-agreed percentage of each co-author's contribution to creating the copyrighted work. (more...)
Gerke, K. (1967) Ein Beitrag zur Bestimmung rezenter Erdkrustenbewegungen. In. Festschrift zum 70. Geburtstag von Professor Dr.Ing. Walter GroBmann, pp. 66-78. Wittwer, Stuttgart
Gerke, K. (1974) Crustal movements in the Myvatn- and in the Thingvallavatn-area, both horizontal and vertical. In: Kristjansson, L. (Ed.) Geodynamics of Iceland and the North Atlantic Area, pp. 263-275. Reidel, Dordrecht
Gerke, K., Moller, D., Ritter, B. (1978) Geodatische Lagemessungen zur Bestimmung horizontaler Krustenbewegungen in NordostIsland. In: Festschrift fur Walter Hopcke zum 70. Geburtstag, pp. 23-33. Lehrstilhle fur Geodasie, Photogrammetrie und Kartographie an der TU Hannover
Heumann, F.W. (1972) Untersuchungen im geodatischen Sondernetz in Nordost-Island zu Messungen von 1938 und 1965. Dissertation Technische Universitat Braunschweig
Kuntz, E., Moller, D. (1971) Gleichzeitige elektronische Entfernungsmessungen mit Licht- und Mikrowellen. Alig. Vermessungsnachrichten 78:254-266
Niemczyk, O. (1943) Spalten auf Island. Wittwer, Stuttgart
Pelzer, H. (1971) Zur Analyse von Deformationsmessungen. Deutsche Geodatische Kommission Reihe C, Munich 164
Pelzer, H. (1974) Neuere Ergebnisse der statistischen Analyse von Deformationsmessungen. XIV Intern. Kongres der Vermessungsingenieure, Inv. Paper Nr 608.3, Washington
Saemundsson, K. (1974) Evolution of the axial rifting zone in northern Iceland and the Tjornes fracture zone. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 85:495-504
Spickernagel, H. (1966) Hohenmessungen in Nord-Island. Mitt. Markscheidewesen 73:139-152